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Welcome to Niugini Medical Services Welcome to Niugini Med-Lab Services website. Specialist Clinician & Pathologist-owned & operated Private Medical Laboratory in Port Moresby city, Papua New Guinea. Please visit us at Sect 83, Allot 11, Leander Street, Manu AutoPort (directly opposite Manu Cash & Carry Supermarket Shop, few meters from POM Grammar/Vadavada Roundabout, Thank you.

Sex Hormones -Infertility Test-Males


 Question 1. What is the Basis for Blood Testing?

Just as in females, male sexuality and fertility is a complex interplay of various hormone systems in our body and our nervous system. They influence health and activity of structural elements of sexual organs like testes, ejaculatory ducts (epididymus) and sperm production and penile erection and ejaculation. Some of these hormones include follicular stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH), testosterone, prolactin, thyroid hormones, and adrenal gland hormones (DHEAS, cortisol).

For example, LH and FSH is produced from pituitary gland and help testes produce sperm and male hormone called testosterone.

The production of testosterone within the testis is needed to enhance sperm maturation, give male sexual characteristics and masculinity. Testosterone is important in enhancing male sexual desire or pleasure. Hence, any imbalance in sex hormones and other hormones will affect sperm development and maturation, fertility and sexual pressure and lack of energy. For example, lack of testosterone causes low sperm count, erection failure, impotence or reduced desire to have  sex and lack of energy. Male infertility testing involves 2 main tests: hormonal testing and semen analysis.

Question 2. What hormones are tested?

Testosterone and the pituitary hormones, FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) and LH (luteinising hormone) circulate in the blood stream and can be easily measured by taking a blood sample to check if hormonal problems are a possible cause of infertility. Your doctor will often request test for thyroid, prolactin and cortisol hormones depending on your clinic situation.

Question 3. How is the Test done?

Sex Hormone tests are measured from a small sample of blood taken in the arm. A small blood sample of about 5-10mls is taken. No special preparation is required. Often this is done together with other basic chemistry tests including kidney, liver, diabetes, gout, calcium and cholesterol.

 Question 4. What does and abnormal result mean?

You result will be interpreted by your doctor alone with other tests such as semen analysis. Typical report is shown below.



LH (Pituitary)

FSH  (Pituitary)

Testosterone (Leydig cells, testis)

Sperm numbers  (seminiferous tubes)

Pituitary Problems

Very Low LH

Very Low FSH

Very low Testosterone

Low or absent sperm

Problem in testes 

Very high LH

Very high FSH

Low to normal testosterone

Low absent sperm

Sperm Tube problem

Very high LH

Normal FSH

Normal testosterone

Low or absent sperm

Blocked Sperm tubes

Normal LH

Normal FSH

Normal testosterone

Absent sperm

Other possible problems picked-up on blood testing include hypothyroid (low fT4, high FSH), hyperthyroid (high fT4, low TSH), brain tumour (high prolactin), primary testicular failure (low testosterone), adrenal gland tumour, low cortisol (Addison’s disease), high cortisol (Cushing's syndrome) and early clue to hormonal disorders (klinefelter’s Syndrome)-high

Question 5. What treatments are available?

Various treatment options with be available depending on specific cause. This may include medical/drug treatment, surgery or psychological counselling. Discuss with your doctor.

Question 6. How is confidentiality of results maintained?

All tests done are confidential. In is unethical for any laboratory staff to disclose your results without your consent. No one, not even your spouse and family should know your result without your permission. If you feel that this confidentiality is bridged by any of the staff members do not hesitate to report to the management of the centre.

 Question 7. Where should I go for more information?

Please visit excellent website on infertility by Queensland Infertility Group Australia wide here ( and download their ebooks on infertility for free.